The majority of countries suffering water shortages are in Africa: the continent is characterised by high populations coupled with few and unevenly distributed water bases. The fight for water has already began, and today, the area suffering water scarcity is increasing continuously, with an increasing number of people being forced to leave their homes behind to be nearer the water without which they could not survive. Political tension caused by water shortages was also a feature of the history of the 20th century, and today, there is fighting in a number of zones where the lack of water was one of the initial causes of the conflict.
The IWMI (International Water Management Institute) studies the long-term benefits and/or disadvantages of using sewage and wastewater for irrigation, a common practice in the agriculture of developing countries, along with the possible solutions for reducing risks. The main study areas are Pakistan, Ghana, Vietnam and Mexico, countries in which the use of sewage and wastewater in agriculture is widespread.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) have produced a water management manual based on the principles of green infrastructure. The purpose of the publication is to popularise the solutions, and to present efficient and sustainable projects already in operation that use green or hybrid (traditional – gray and natural – green) infrastructural solutions in the field of water management.